By freemexy, 2019-10-22
Molecular Formula: C26H29NO.C6H8O7
Molecular weight: 563.64
CAS NO.: 54965-24-1
Appearance: white crystalline powder
MP: 140-144 ºC
How It Works
is the most commonly used hormone therapy for the treatment of breast cancer.
to know more about Antiestrogen,powder,liquid,peptide,prohormone)
Many women have breast cancer that tests positive for estrogen receptors (ER+). This means that estrogen promotes the growth of the breast cancer cells. T`amoxifen blocks the effects of estrogen on these cells. It is often called an "anti-estrogen. "Tamoxifen powder
Tamoxifen Citrate is agent that demonstrates potent anti-estrogenic properties. The drug is technically an estrogen agonist/antagonist, which competitively binds to estrogen receptors in various target tissues. With the t`amoxifen molecule bound to this receptor, estrogen is blocked from exerting any action, and an anti-estrogenic effect is achieved. Since many forms of breast cancer are responsive to estrogen, the ability of t`amoxifen citrate to block its action in such cells has proven to be a very effective treatment. It is also utilized successfully as a preventative measure, taken by people with an extremely high familial tendency for breast cancer.
By freemexy, 2019-10-22
Sotalol (3930-20-9) Mechanism Of Action
Sotalol powder is indicated to treat life threatening ventricular arrhytmias and maintain normal sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter.Label There are also oral solutions and intravenous injections indicated for patients requiring sotalol, but for whom a tablet would not be appropriate.
Sotalol powder is a competitive inhibitor of the rapid potassium channel. This inhibition lengthens the duration of action potentials and the refractory period in the atria and ventricles. The inhibition of rapid potassium channels is increases as heart rate decreases, which is why adverse effects like torsades de points is more likely to be seen at lower heart rates.6 L-sotalol also has beta adrenergic receptor blocking activity seen above plasma concentrations of 800ng/L. The beta blocking ability of sotalol further prolongs action potentials. D-sotalol does not have beta blocking activity but also reduces a patient’s heart rate while standing or exercising. These actions combine to produce a negative inotropic effect that reduces the strength of contractility of muscle cells in the heart. Extension of the QT interval is also adversely associated with the induction of arrhythmia in patients.
Sotalol powder was first synthesized in 1960 by A. A. Larsen of Mead-Johnson Pharmaceutical. It was originally recognized for its blood pressure lowering effects and its ability to reduce the symptoms of angina. It was made available in the United Kingdom and France in 1974, Germany in 1975, and Sweden in 1979. It became widely used in the 1980s. In the 1980s, its antiarrhythmic properties were discovered. The United States approved the drug in 1992.
06 Sotalol (3930-20-9) Mechanism Of Action
Sotalol non-selectively binds to both β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors preventing activation of the receptors by their stimulatory ligand (catecholamines). Without the binding of this ligand to the receptor, the G-protein complex associated with the receptor cannot activate production of cyclic AMP, which is responsible for turning on calcium inflow channels. A decrease in activation of calcium channels will therefore result in a decrease in intracellular calcium. In heart cells, calcium is important in generating electrical signals for heart muscle contraction, as well as generating force for this contraction. In consideration of these important properties of calcium, two conclusions can Beta-blocker action
Sotalol non-selectively binds to both β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors preventing activation of the receptors by their stimulatory ligand (catecholamines). Without the binding of this ligand to the receptor, the G-protein complex associated with the receptor cannot activate production of cyclic AMP, which is responsible for turning on calcium inflow channels. A decrease in activation of calcium channels will therefore result in a decrease in intracellular calcium. In heart cells, calcium is important in generating electrical signals for heart muscle contraction, as well as generating force for this contraction. In consideration of these important properties of calcium, two conclusions can be drawn. First, with less calcium in the cell, there is a decrease in electrical signals for contraction, thus allowing time for the heart’s natural pacemaker to rectify arrhythmic contractions. Secondly, lower calcium means a decrease in strength and rate of the contractions, which can be helpful in treatment of abnormally fast heart rates.
Type III antiarrhythmic action
Sotalol also acts on potassium channels and causes a delay in relaxation of the ventricles. By blocking these potassium channels, sotalol inhibits efflux of K+ ions, which results in an increase in the time before another electrical signal can be generated in ventricular myocytes. This increase in the period before a new signal for contraction is generated, helps to correct arrhythmias by reducing the potential for premature or abnormal contraction of the ventricles but also prolongs the frequency of ventricular contraction to help treat tachycardia.
By freemexy, 2019-10-22
Stimulant Drug Albuterol Sulfate Lean Meat Powder Salbutamol Sulfate
Steroids Hormone Albuterol Sulfateis usually given by the inhaled route for direct effect on bronchial smooth muscle. This is usually achieved through a metered dose inhaler (MDI), nebulizer or other proprietary delivery devices (e.g. Rotahaler or Autohaler). In these forms of delivery, the maximal effect of salbutamol can take place within five to 20 minutes of dosing, though some relief is immediately seen. It can also be given intravenously.Used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, asthmatic bronchitis, emphysema, patients bronchospasm.Salbutamol powder
Albuterol is a bronchodilator that relaxes muscles in the airways and increases air flow to the lungs.Albuterol inhalation is used to treat or prevent bronchospasm in people with reversible obstructive airway disease. It is also used to prevent exercise-induced bronchospasm.
Albuterol sulfate is a prescription medication indicated to treat or prevent airway constriction in people with asthma. This medication is a bronchodilator, which works by relaxing the bronchial muscles within a patient's airways to allow oxygen to reach the lungs. In certain instances, patients can develop allergic reaction symptoms after taking albuterol sulfate for the first time. Affected patients require immediate, emergency medical attention to avoid developing potentially life-threatening medical complications.
Albuterol Sulfate Usage:
Albuterol is used to treat wheezing and shortness of breath caused by breathing problems such as asthma. It is a quick-relief medication. Albuterol belongs to a class of medicine known as bronchodilators. It works in the airways by opening breathing passages and relaxing muscles. Controlling symptoms of breathing problems can decrease time lost from work or schoo
By freemexy, 2019-10-22
A haemangioma is a collection of small immature blood vessels. They are sometimes called ‘strawberry marks’ because the surface of some haemangiomas look a bit like a strawberry.Propanolol
Haemangiomas can be superficial or deep in the skin. Some haemangiomas are a combination of the two, seen as a raised red area on the surface of the skin, and as a bluish swelling of abnormal blood vessels deeper in the skin. Very occasionally haemangiomas may occur internally.
Haemangiomas are not usually obvious at birth but become apparent within a few days or weeks. They grow rapidly in the first three months, increasing in size and sometimes in redness.It is unusual for haemangiomas to grow after six to 10 months of age, when most haemangiomas tend to have a ‘rest period’ and then begin to shrink.
What is propranolol?
Propranolol is a beta-blocker. Some nerves release a chemical called noradrenaline when they are stimulated, which in turn stimulates ‘beta adrenergic receptors’. These can cause a variety of effects. For instance, if the beta adrenergic receptors in the heart are stimulated, the heart pumps harder and faster than before, so more blood is pumped around the body. Betablocker medicines block the beta adrenergic receptors and stop them being stimulated.
How does propranolol help with haemangiomas?
By blocking the beta adrenergic receptors, propranolol can make blood vessels narrower, reducing the amount of blood flowing through them. This is particularly effective in haemangiomas, by reducing the colour and making them softer. Growth of the haemangioma cells is also limited by propranolol so that the haemangioma starts to reduce in size. More research is needed to fully understand how propranolol works. The beneficial effects are usually seen very quickly.
Are there side effects with propranolol treatment?
Propranolol is associated with the following side effects, which happen very rarely. However, you should report any of the following to your doctor as the dose of propranolol may need to be altered or on very rare occasions, stopped.
Bradycardia (slow heart rate).
Hypotension (low blood pressure).
Bronchspasm (temporary narrowing of the airway, leading to wheezing and coughing).
Peripheral vasoconstriction (reduced blood flow to the extremities, such as fingers and toes, making them feel cold and turn a blue colour).
Weakness and fatigue, showing as floppiness and disinterest in surroundings.
Hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar).
Gastrointestinal disturbances such as constipation or diarrhoea.
If you have any concerns about these side effects, please discuss them with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.
Are any tests needed before starting propranolol treatment?
Occasionally we will suggest some tests to check that your child can safely take the medicine. These may include blood and urine tests, an electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiogram (echo). If your child has multiple haemangiomas visible on the skin, we may also carry out an abdominal ultrasound scan to look for any haemangiomas in the liver.
What happens when my child starts treatment?
Some infants will be monitored for two hours after the first dose. This monitoring allows the doctors to be absolutely sure your child can tolerate the prescribed dose. The procedure is occasionally repeated after one week when the dose is increased, although the dose is normally increased at home.
By freemexy, 2019-10-22
Propranolol Hydrochloride is a synthetic beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent chemically described as 2-Propanol, 1-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-3-(1-naphthalenyloxy)-, hydrochloride,(±)-. Its molecular and structural formula:β-agonist Powder
Propranolol Hydrochloride Oral Solution is available for oral administration containing either 20 mg per 5 mL or 40 mg per 5 mL of propranolol hydrochloride USP. The oral solution contains the following inactive ingredients: citric acid anhydrous, crème de menthe flavor, disodium edetate, methyl paraben, propylene glycol, propylparaben, purified water, saccharin sodium, sorbitol solution and strawberry flavor.
Propranolol is a nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent possessing no other autonomic nervous system activity. It specifically competes with beta-adrenergic receptor agonist agents for available receptor sites. When access to beta-receptor sites is blocked by propranolol, the chronotropic, inotropic, and vasodilator responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation are decreased proportionately. At dosages greater than required for beta-blockade, propranolol also exerts a quinidine-like or anesthetic-like membrane action, which affects the cardiac action potential. The significance of the membrane action in the treatment of arrhythmias is uncertain.
Mechanism of Action
The mechanism of the antihypertensive effect of propranolol has not been established. Factors that may contribute to the antihypertensive action include: (1) decreased cardiac output, (2) inhibition of renin release by the kidneys, and (3) diminution of tonic sympathetic nerve outflow from vasomotor centers in the brain. Although total peripheral resistance may increase initially, it readjusts to or below the pretreatment level with chronic use of propranolol. Effects of propranolol on plasma volume appear to be minor and somewhat variable.
In angina pectoris, propranolol generally reduces the oxygen requirement of the heart at any given level of effort by blocking the catecholamine-induced increases in the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and the velocity and extent of myocardial contraction. Propranolol may increase oxygen requirements by increasing left ventricular fiber length, end diastolic pressure, and systolic ejection period. The net physiologic effect of beta-adrenergic blockade is usually advantageous and is manifested during exercise by delayed onset of pain and increased work capacity.
Propranolol exerts its antiarrhythmic effects in concentrations associated with beta-adrenergic blockade, and this appears to be its principal antiarrhythmic mechanism of action. In dosages greater than required for beta-blockade, propranolol also exerts a quinidine-like or anesthetic-like membrane action, which affects the cardiac action potential. The significance of the membrane action in the treatment of arrhythmias is uncertain.
The mechanism of the antimigraine effect of propranolol has not been established. Beta-adrenergic receptors have been demonstrated in the pial vessels of the brain.
The specific mechanism of propranolol’s antitremor effects has not been established, but beta-2 (noncardiac) receptors may be involved. A central effect is also possible. Clinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol is of benefit in exaggerated physiological and essential (familial) tremor
Propranolol is highly lipophilic and almost completely absorbed after oral administration. However, it undergoes high first-pass metabolism by the liver and on average, only about 25% of propranolol reaches the systemic circulation. Peak plasma concentrations occur about 1 to 4 hours after an oral dose.
Administration of protein-rich foods increase the bioavailability of propranolol by about 50% with no change in time to peak concentration, plasma binding, half-life, or the amount of unchanged drug in the urine.
Approximately 90% of circulating propranolol is bound to plasma proteins (albumin and alpha1 acid glycoprotein). The binding is enantiomer-selective. The S(-)-enantiomer is preferentially bound to alpha1 glycoprotein and the R(+)- enantiomer preferentially bound to albumin. The volume of distribution of propranolol is approximately 4 liters/kg.
By freemexy, 2019-10-22
1. Indapamide is a thiazide-like diuretic drug marketed by Servier, generally used in the treatment of hypertension, as well as decompensated heart failure. Combination preparations with perindopril (an ACE inhibitor antihypertensive) are also available.Indapamide powder
2. White needle crystal or crystalline powder, odorless, tasteless. It is almost insoluble in water or dilute hydrochloric acid, while it can be dissolved in ethanol or ethyl acetate, and it is soluble in acetone, acetic acid, slightly soluble in chloroform or ether.
3. Indapamide is currently the most popular non-prescription diuretic antihypertensive drug with good efficacy, stable blood pressure, fewer side effects, etc.
1. Indapamide have diuretic and calcium antagonist dual effect by inhibiting the proximal end of the distal convoluted tubule Na+ reabsorption, resulting in diuresis, while by blocking Ca2+ influx especially a higher selectivity for vascular smooth muscle to dilate the small blood vessels of the outer periphery, resulting in antihypertensive effect. But the effect to vascular smooth muscle is stronger than the diuretic effect.
2. It can lower blood pressure with lower dose compared to diuretic effect. Higher dose will display diuretic effect. But there is no disadvantage compared to thiazide diuretics, that it does not cause orthostatic hypotension, flushing and reflex tachycardia, nor blood lipids, glucose metabolism and renal function.
1. This medication is used to treat high blood pressure. Indapamide is also used to reduce extra salt and fluid in the body (edema) caused by a certain heart problem (congestive heart failure). Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. Decreasing extra salt and fluid in the body helps to decrease swelling and breathing problems from congestive heart failure and increases your ability to exercise.
2. Indapamide is a "water pill" (diuretic) that increases the amount of urine you make. Getting rid of extra water and salt may help to relax the blood vessels so that bloodcan flow more easily. These effects help to lower blood pressure and decrease the amount of work the heart must do to pump blood.
By freemexy, 2019-10-22
White needle crystal or crystalline powder, odorless and tasteless. Almost insoluble in water or dilute hydrochloric acid, soluble in ethanol or ethyl acetate, soluble in acetone, acetic acid, slightly soluble in chloroform or ether.β-agonist Powder
Indapamide is an over-the-counter diuretic antihypertensive drug commonly used in China, which has the advantages of good efficacy, stable antihypertensive and less side effects.
Indapamide has dual effects of diuresis and calcium antagonism. By inhibiting Na+ reabsorption at the proximal end of the distal convoluted tubule, it can produce diuretic effect and block Ca2+ internal flow. It is highly selective to vascular smooth muscle, so as to dilate peripheral small blood vessels and generate antihypertensive effect. But the effect on vascular smooth muscle stronger diuretic effect, below the diuretic doses can step-down, higher doses showed diuretic effect, but no thiazide diuretic shortcomings, namely not cause orthostatic hypotension, flush and reflective tachycardia, on blood picture, metabolism of blood fat, sugar and renal function also had no obvious effect, therapeutic doses of heart rate, cardiac output, no significant changes in electrocardiogram (ecg) were on the central nervous system and plant nerve has no obvious effect. The antihypertensive effect was produced by oral administration for 2 ~ 3h and maintained for 24h. The diuretic effect appeared for 3h and reached the maximum effect for 4 ~ 6h. Different from other diuretics, this product has high lipid solubility. After oral absorption, the plasma concentration of liver and kidney is the highest, while the concentration of heart, lung, muscle and fat is lower. This product is mainly excreted from the kidney by metabolites and 5% prototype. Indapamide is suitable for mild and moderate primary hypertension, can also be used for congestive heart failure caused by water sodium retention, with renal failure are also applicable to the patients with high blood pressure, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, use antihypertensive effect is remarkable, and beta blockers used curative effect is better, because this drug has diuretic effect, can cause hypokalemia, can complement potassium at the same time.
By freemexy, 2019-10-22
Many people are looking for ways to improve their performance both at home and at work. The brain is one of the critical organs in the body, and for you to function correctly, your mental health should be taken care of at all times. For many years people have been using nootropics to enhance their brainpower, memory, mental alertness, cognitive skills, and concentration. Aniracetam powder (72432-10-1) is one of the potent nootropic supplements on the market today, which has proven to be essential in boosting concentration, reduce anxiety as well as improve the overall brain health.Aniracetam powder
Nootropics, commonly known as smart drugs, is a growing medication industry, and some of the medications are still being developed. Aniracetam powder buy belongs to the racetam nootropic family, and the drugs in this group have proven to be very vital in boosting memory and cognitive functions.
This nootropic powder is available online or in the nearest physical pharmacy. However, it’s advisable to always go for medical examination before you start taking these smart drugs such as aniracetam. Overdosing or misusing any of the nootropics can result in severe side effects which might be expensive to reverse.
However, nootropics in the racetam family are known for having minimal or zero side effects when used correctly. The aniracetam dosage should be set by a medical professional for better results. Nootropics such as aniracetam or any other can be taken alone or stacked with other drugs for maximum benefits. Some companies and researchers are still doing medical studies to find new nootropic supplements and other areas where the drugs can be useful. Depending on what you need to achieve, your doctor will prescribe the best nootropic supplement for you
Aniracetam and Racetam
Aniracetam is among the first nootropics to be discovered, and it belongs to the racetam family of smart drugs. After the development of the first-ever nootropic powder known as piracetam which was created in the early 1960s, medical researchers continued with the study on its effects, which led to changes in the piracetam chemical structure.
The chemical structure changes in the piracetam resulted to the creation of nootropic aniracetam. In 1970, the Belgian pharmaceutical company Hoffmann-La Roche created the nootropic aniracetam, which was made to enhance brain performance as well as help in the treatment of cognitive issues.
On the other hand, Racetam is a class of synthetic substances that mainly help in boosting your brain health by supplying nutrients and chemicals that your brains need to maintain cognitive excellence and alertness. Some of the nootropic supplements in the racetam family include aniracetam, piracetam, Phenylpiracetam, and Oxiracetam. All racetams work almost in the same way and are potent when it comes to enhancing overall brain health.
However, some smart drugs in this family might have some advantages over others, and they can also be used together for quick and maximum benefits. The dosages also vary from one racetam drug to another, depending on what you need to achieve by the end of the dosage cycle. Consult with your doctor for more information about the relationship between aniracetam and racetam.
How Does Racetam Work?
Generally, racetams activate both acetylcholine and glutamate receptors which are vital elements in the body, especially for boosting cognition and aid the overall physical activities of your body organs. Glutamate is a dominant neurotransmitter in your body, mostly in the brain and central nervous system. It plays a vital role in boosting the brain function, which leads to a neurological message transmitted via the neural circuit. On the other hand, glutamate also helps in the metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) substance that acts as a brake on the system, which weakens the probability of neural communication.
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter which is essential in enhancing the intrabody communication that governs the cognition, and muscular efficiency more so in the area of memories and learning. It is a vital player in the parasympathetic nervous system that helps the human brain to cycle and process through the stress. Different studies have shown that regulating the performance and acetylcholine and optimal glutamate levels can help in boosting the way both brain and nervous system work.