By Jonnyjelly, 2019-07-23
Tampering with urine samples is a frequent issue when it comes to drug-related examinations or investigations. According to discussions on relevant internet blogs, the use of substitute urine products seems to be a way to prevent the detection of substance use. Currently, no systematic data have been published regarding the composition of commercially available synthetic urine.
Urine in the English-speaking areas of Europe ("Tesclear") was examined. In addition, analytical methods to differentiate between synthetic and human urine were investigated.
Material and methods
Four different versions of the synthetic urine sold under the brand name "Tesclear" were purchased and analyzed regarding their sensory and physicochemical characteristics as well as the composition (eg, electrolytes and organic components).
The synthetic urine specimens were generally known as aqueous solutions containing urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and chloride (pH values between 5 and 7). These are similar to those of typical human urine. In three out of the four urine specimens the results obtained for specific gravity would not raise any doubts on the authenticity.
The identification of "CleanUrin" specimens as synthetic urine by the commonly used parameters, such as pH value, specific gravity and creatinine is not possible with certainty; however, the differentiation between synthetic and human urine can easily be accomplished using analytical techniques, such as chromatography, mass spectrometry and identification of urine proteins and metabolites. The gold standard for prevention of urine substitution remains silent urine collection under direct observation.